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Frankenprinters May 14, 2019

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My army of loyal readers (hi, Mom!) will recall my fondness for and fascination with the promise of 3D printers, and similar robotic manufacturing techniques. I should have acquired several by now, but I am famously cheap thrifty and so never indulged this particular whim..until just a bit ago when I acquired three not-working printers from a cosplay parts dealer named Alder (last name redacted, because I never learned it) for a bargain price of a hundred bucks apiece.

image

They each had at least one major thing wrong, and all had some disconnected wiring. The middle one had a missing limit switch on the y-axis and a missing adjustment for the z-axis (it’s still missing; I am going to try and fix that this evening–look for exciting updates) limit switch.  I can’t tell what else is wrong with it until I stop threatening my build plate.

The left one needed a bit of wiring (fairly easy to find wiring diagrams for the boards attached, with a bit of intuition) and an adjustment to the z-axis limit switch and a new motherboard. The right one needed (may still need) a new heated build plate (I am currently using it as a PLA printer, so a hot plate is not so critical), wiring, z-axis adjustment and some patience, as I was a little too stupid to fix it myself when I bought these guys a while back.  I had to grow in confidence before I could troubleshoot. In fairness, the exhausting regimen of commuting between my work and home on weekends (six hours one way) really dampened my spirits.  I’m not usually such a coward.

I forget how many of them needed new hot ends or thermistors (two, I think) and rewiring to accomodate them.

Lastly, all needed new blue tape (very important; no adhesion without fresh tape!)

adhesion fixed.jpeg

and one needed new glass.  The first print (with new tape) did not photograph well:

sdhc swiss army knife.jpeg

I attribute poor image quality to beer; cameras should never drink.

 

This Speaks to Me May 14, 2019

Posted by stuffilikenet in Awesome, Photography.
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freee-kitten

3D Printing Progress May 10, 2019

Posted by stuffilikenet in 3D Printing, Applications, Awesome, Geek Stuff.
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There’s going to be a lot of that, now that critical mass of commercial systems are available. new materials are being used in additive manufacturing and new devices have considerably expanded the capabilities of systems in terms of speed, build volume and finish. It’s an interesting moment in engineering history, and nobody knows where it will lead.

Printing with [anything besides plastics] is fraught with difficulty, so interesting methods have been tried for substances like metals, clay, frosting(!) with varying success. Two methods have lately shown promise in metal and glass(amazingly enough).

First, metals. The most common method of depositing metals has been to embed the metal in something a bit more fluid, like in an ink suspension. This has the usual effect of having poor mechanical adhesion, because after the fluid dries the metal may adhere to itself poorly (likely) and there may be fluid contamination trapped in the metal layers (very likely).  Researchers got around this with an entirely new method, using a sacrificial electrode to generate ions of the metal and spraying those ions electrostatically. You can get insanely small resolution using this technique:

…and you can print with more than one metal by building both into the tip and just switching voltage from one electrode to the other:

Elegant as hell, isn’t it?

Then, glass: a team in France using chalcogenide glass (which softens at a relatively low temperature compared to other glass) produced chalcogenide glass filaments with dimensions similar to the commercial plastic filaments normally used with the 3-D printer. The research team then increased the maximum extruding temperature of a commercial 3-D printer from around 260 °C to 330 °C.  The result is pretty interesting:

An interesting proof-of-concept piece, this points to novel uses for chalcogenide glass commonly used to make optical components that operate at mid-infrared wavelengths. It’s not likely to be used elsewhere, as it’s a “soft” glass, but the feat is going to be useful in optics fabrication. Also, there are some low-temperature metal alloys that could probably benefit from this technique.

 

Homework: Alain Reiser et al. Multi-metal electrohydrodynamic redox 3D printing at the submicron scale, Nature Communications (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-09827-1

E. Baudet et al, 3D-printing of arsenic sulfide chalcogenide glasses, Optical Materials Express (2019). DOI: 10.1364/OME.9.002307

40Hz Light Pulses Stop Alzheimer’s May 10, 2019

Posted by stuffilikenet in Awesome, Brain, Geek Stuff, Science, Star Trek Technology.
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Neuroscientists at MIT have published a paper which demonstrates that 40Hz pulses of light can somehow inhibit the progress of neurodegeneration in mouse model. This study is designed to figure out how a flickering light could stifle cognitive decline, using two unique mouse models engineered to overproduced the toxic proteins that contribute to neurodegeneration. The animals were exposed to light flickering at 40 Hz for one hour every day for between three and six weeks. It worked a treat;  mice engineered to overproduce tau proteins (that usually cause neurodegeneration) displayed no neuronal degeneration after three weeks of treatment compared to a control group that displayed nearly 20 percent total neuronal loss. The other mouse model, engineered to produce a neurodegenerative protein called p25, displayed no neurodegeneration whatsoever during the entire six weeks of treatment.

At left is the brain of a mouse genetically programmed to develop Alzheimer’s disease. At right,...

The researchers then zoomed in on the light-treated animal’s neurons and microglia to study whether the treatment induced any unusual changes in gene expression. The light-treated mice revealed increased neuronal expression of genes associated with synaptic function and DNA repair. In microglia, the brain’s immune cells, there was a decrease in genes associated with inflammation.

Nobody understands how a 40 Hz flickering light can trigger these specific changes to gene expression deep in the brain, but human trials testing the sound and light treatment in Alzheimer’s patients have already begun.

Note: Adding a 40 Hz auditory tone to the process improved the efficacy of this treatment.  Your elderly parents can benefit from this by using gnuaural, an open-source generator of binaural beats for meditation and other psychological effects.

Homework: https://www.cell.com/neuron/fulltext/S0896-6273(19)30346-0

Noir, a Novel, by Christopher Moore May 2, 2019

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Noir, a Novel, by Christopher Moore combines Moore’s signature humor with the delivery of a noir-fiction detective. It is, like all his books, filled with wild improbabilities or impossibilities depending on your religion (or lack thereof). Get the audio book version; the reader gets it just right at every turn of the page.

For your trouble you will get murder (of course; it is a noir novel), kidnapping, gangsters, conspiracies, secret societies, hookers dressed like Dorothy Gale, a girlfriend referred to as “The Cheese”, potential human sacrifice and a completely unexpected ending, unless you are big on deus ex machina, or catches in left field.

In my usual way of ensuring maximum delight, I give no details whatsoever. Let it unfold in your mind. Available on Amazon (of course) and sfpl.org.

January Dancer, by Michael Flynn May 1, 2019

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January Dancer, by Michael Flynn, is a juicy little bit of wordplay cleverly disguised as a science fiction novel featuring clever cops, more clever criminals, powerful pre-Human artifacts, corporate greed, human cupidity, piracy, rebellion, senseless violence, gratuitous sex (is it only coincidence that it advances the plot?) and moral courage.

I enjoyed it hugely. Basically, a pre-Human artifact is discovered by a space crew repairing their ship, surrendered for a fee to the Big Corporation With Evil Ends in Mind, stolen by space pirates, recovered by persons unknown, sought by idealistic rebels, found by clever policemen, stolen by ….

It’s a little bit complicated, but pretty much everyone can enjoy it despite the complexities of the MacGuffin hunt, if only for the names of the places and characters and the fascinating patois of the locals (see wordplay, above).  In the hands of the capable narrator, it fairly sings with delightful banter and description.

Available on Amazon (of course) and sfpl.org. Most highly recommended.

3D-printed Millimeter-sized Robots April 25, 2019

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An exciting (and lovingly detailed) paper in Science Robotics documents the design and production of Millimeter-scale flexible robots with programmable three-dimensional magnetization and motions for use in hard-to-reach body parts and possibly surgery as well. Developed by researchers in the University of Toronto, the tiny little device is activated by a magnetic field:

As in all the best papers, this one show materials and methods in exquisite detail, illustrating the physical apparatus for patterning the magnetic needles which make up the basic structure of several tiny machines: the millimeter-scale segmented magnetic swimmer, the untethered multi-arm magnetic microgripper, and the multi-legged paddle-crawling robot.

What’s really wonderful about this paper is the careful explanation of the first principles used to build up all the other pieces (see Table 1., where they show the reason they are able to successfully manipulate in three dimensions using only a single magnetic field).

Table 1. Capabilities of major existing methods to pattern magnetic particles. 1D: Only binary magnetization can be patterned, e.g., longitudinal or perpendicular recording in a hard disk drive. 2D: Direction of magnetization in each layer is restricted to a single plane. 3D: Magnetization in each layer can be patterned in arbitrary direction. Discrete: Magnetization in each area is independent of adjacent areas. Continuum: Magnetization in each area cannot have sudden changes with respect to adjacent areas. N/A, not applicable.

Screen Shot 2019-04-25 at 10.10.00 AM
*Shape of media refers to the structure of the composite materials in which the magnetic particles are dispersed. 2D refers to planar structures, whereas 3D refers to solid 3D structures.

†States of magnetization is defined as degrees of freedom related to the orientation of hard magnetic particles or preferred magnetic axes of soft magnetic particles in each area.

 

Beautiful. The rest of the paper is just as detailed, and even fairly easy to understand.

 

Homework: T. Xu el al., “Millimeter-Scale Flexible Robots with Programmable Three-Dimensional Magnetization and Motions,” Science Robotics (2019). robotics.sciencemag.org/lookup … /scirobotics.aav4494

Eifelheim, by Michael Flynn April 15, 2019

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Eifelheim, by  Michael Flynn, is a wonderful book full of historical accuracies, plausibly. Human characters, utterly fanciful science fiction and (in the audiobook version) droll and dry remarks from demons (in the 13th century) or aliens (in the 21st). In both eras, the story is fascinating as we see into the mind of a medieval village priest and two modern-day historians.  The story is told by both, without the usual historical whiplash which usually accompanies this sort of perspective switch.  The medieval setting lends a certain claustrophobic cloud of uncertainty to the actions of the parish priests, who succors aliens and finally allows them to live in his parish.  It is one of those rare books where Christian charity is given a fair shake, even while the foibles and failures of human beings undermine the whole religious structure.

A very good read and I recommend it most highly.  The audiobook is available at Amazon (of course), but also at sfpl.org.

EXCITING UPDATE: I liked Flynn’s writing so well I started January Dancer, which I also recommend for wordplay alone. Possible review coming up, but I’m pretty sure it will be flattering.

Semiosis, by Sue Burke April 10, 2019

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Semiosis, by Sue Burke is a lovely tale of space colonists dedicated to living in harmony with Nature.

Nature has some ideas about that, however.

Specifically, the plants on the colonists’ new world are intelligent in varying degrees, depending on size, longevity and, uh, temperament (sort of like humans).  The interaction of humans with their new acquaintances forms the whole of the book, and especially the humans interacting with each other in response.  It’s a complex, multigenerational tale and has some wonderful and horrible things like dictatorship enforced by lies, murder and rape (fertile females being too valuable to a small colony to kill outright), war with another race of space colonists, psychopathy and madness and gratuitous democracy.  It’s well told and competently read by Caitlin Davies (the female narrator), Daniel Thomas May (male narrator) in about equal parts, as they tell the story from the point of view of several different characters, including a perspicacious bamboo plant.

The very best of this is, of course, the idea of a sentient plant (plants, really; there are several intelligent species in the story) and the thoughts and feelings they express…and do not express.

A must read for science fiction readers, I recommend this one highly. Available at Amazon and sfpl.org.

Pushing Ice, by Alastair Reynolds March 19, 2019

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Pushing Ice, by Alastair Reynolds is a heck of an audiobook. The story is of comet miners detoured to the outer reaches of the solar system to chase Janus, an ice moon of Saturn[0] that has suddenly accelerated away from orbit. They are the only ship within range, so not really a lot of choice…and there is the rub.  Some choices get made, and some terrible things happen.

In Space!

Sorry.  Had to get that out.

This isn’t just a scantily-clad space opera; I genuinely felt for the characters as mountains of Bad Things happened to them over really long time spans…because they got a little tiny bit time-dilated[1]. Okay, more than a tiny bit. There are ultimately power grabs, friendships lost, horrible deaths, miraculous medicine, aliens[2], war, rebellion, intrigue, tropical fish, heroic rescues and weird science.

A yummy confection that took about twenty hours and I found it intense enough to turn off often, as I was feeling the characters fear and grief.  Nice work, that.

Available on Amazon (link above) and at sfpl.org.

__________

[0] “Janis, Ice Maid of Saturn” would make a great movie serial.

[1] Not a science book at all, but simple discussion of physics here and there didn’t break narrative flow.

[2] It’s no fun without aliens.

Malaria Cure in the Offing March 11, 2019

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Shamelessly stolen words:

“In 2016, 216 million people fell sick due to the Plasmodium falciparum parasite and 441,000 died of malaria, according to the report.

The study demonstrated that a single oral dose of 400 mg DSM265 — given seven days after blood stage infection was experimentally induced in healthy subjects who had not previously been exposed, is sufficient to clear low-level P. falciparum parasitemia.

The study confirmed multiple previous studies collectively comprising more than 100 subjects, which also found that DSM265 could clear the disease-causing, non-sexual stage parasites from infected humans.”

This is far too good a bit of news to not shout from rooftops. My uncle (sort of) suffered from malaria from Guadalcanal in 1945 until he passed away eight years ago. Millions of others are a few years from total cure, possibly in a single dose.

 

No Homework Tonight: Don’t have a cite for this yet; it’s supposed to be in today’s Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, a journal of the American Society for Microbiology, but I can’t find it.

EXCITING UPDATE: American Society for Microbiology. “Anti-malarial shows promise in human clinical study.”  –don’t ask me what page.

50% More Efficient Nanowire Solar Panels February 21, 2019

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Gallium arsenide nanowires can convert up to 33% of incident light to electricity if arranged like a stand of trees.  A team at École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne (EFPL, because my French is merde) has made a prototype of these light funnels and found that it may collect up to twelve times the light.  Where did I get that 50% figure in the headline?  That’s the “in practice” value (33% efficiency), compared to the conversion of silicon-based cells (currently[0] about 20% efficient).

Also, since they are really skinny wires, there isn’t much mass which is good considering the cost of gallium arsenide.  When I say skinny here I mean tens of nanometers thick: “Arrays of nanowires would use at least 10 000 times less gallium arsenide, allowing for industrial use of this costly material. Translating this into dollars for gallium arsenide, the cost would only be $10 per square meter instead of $100 000.”

Right then, let’s review: cheaper, lighter and more efficient.  The team thinks they can mount them on flexible substrates, too, so there should be additional deployment modes.

Homework: Single-nanowire solar cells beyond the Shockley–Queisser limit, Peter Krogstrup, Henrik Ingerslev Jørgensen, Martin Heiss, Olivier Demichel, Jeppe V. Holm, Martin Aagesen, Jesper Nygard & Anna Fontcuberta i Morra

 

[0] See what I did there?

Fluorescent Pink Flying Squirrel February 8, 2019

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Think Pink: Texas A&M student aids in discovery of fluorescent pink flying squirrel

Not a punk band name, the North American flying squirrel fluoresces pink at night under ultraviolet light. Not a mistake, either:

“I looked at a ton of different specimens that they had there,” Kohler said. “They were stuffed flying squirrels that they had collected over time, and every single one that I saw fluoresced hot pink in some intensity or another.”

In order to expand the search, the team at Northland College in Wisconsin went to the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago and gathered more specimens. In all, they researched over 100 specimens ranging across numerous states, all confirming the “pink theory.”

I mean it’s not hunter’s orange, but it’s a start.

Tentacle-nosed Catfish February 8, 2019

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sixnewspecie2

This is one of six catfish species recently discovered in Amazonian basin rivers and streams.sixnewspecie1

Cute little creatures, aren’t they?

Where Have I Been (for the past 2 years)? January 30, 2019

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Busy, that’s where. A huge list of Things I Did or Thangs Wot Happen’d would allow Google/Facebook/CIA/NSA/FBI/The Illuminati/Mom to know everything I’m up to, so that’s not happening. Instead, I want to talk about my audiobook adventures.

I had some; I’m going to add a few here in list form and expand them as Words Come To Mind, but don’t hold your breath. As always, this space is usually filled with musings which crystallize during my lunch hour and find their way to you by the miracle of a series of tubes, to almost quote an abysmally ignorant Senator[0]. Given that my lunch hour must also accommodate actual lunch and a walk, this may take a while.

The latest book in my head is the second in the Sleepless series by Nancy Kress. Beggars and Choosers is  better even than the first novel, Beggars in Spain, following the frightening changes to law, society and humanity after genetic engineering of humans  results in a two-class[1] society.  The first book is pretty good, too, but this one has better character development and an edge of terror the first book lacked. Available at Amazon and sfpl.org. I wonder if she has a third book in this series (the ending doesn’t seem to suggest that).

EXCITING UPDATE: there seems to be an additional book: Beggar’s Ride.  I must hunt it down and hear it.

Norse Mythology, by Neil Gaiman is another mythology-related audiobook, this one hewing more closely to the original stories than American Gods (I’ll review this another time; I’ve been busy, damn it). It’s his take on the various Norse myths and charmingly read by him in his wry sort of way. I admit I know nothing about my own heritage in this regard whatsoever, so it was a fun commute for a while.  I recommend this one highly.

I also listened to Anansi Boys by Neil Gaiman, also read by him.[2] That one is even more strange, and wonderful in its complexity and texture. The estranged sons of Anansi (a trickster god) meet up when Anansi dies (?), and one ruins the life of the other hilariously and tragically. Also highly recommended.

More later. I did just lose my draft of this blog post, plus my notes on all the books I read in the last two years, so there will be a little bit of time before I can finish this up…if ever.

I am currently listening to The Themis Files (apparently also a trilogy) by Sylvain Neuval and enjoying them very much.  Told in the style of interview transcripts, it’s the story of alien robots left scattered around the world millennia ago, and the trials and tribulations of finding and using them..and, of course, what to use them for. The audiobooks are specially nice since the characters are pretty well drawn and their reactions to their parts in the story are largely, uh, memorable.  Yeah, memorable; I’m going with that.

There is some screaming as well. Well acted by a bunch of different voice actors, they seemed to have lost one between book two and book three (Puerto Rican girl replaced by New York Puerto Rican girl). The author is listed as one of the voices, and there is a suspiciously Quebecois guy who is trying really hard to pretend he isn’t the author, so that must be him.  Good books for all that.

Some other titles to be fleshed out (all enjoyable enough to finish listening to):  Defy the Worlds, Defy the Stars by Claudia Gray[3] (this series culminates with Defy the Fates eventually), Crossing Over by Anna Kendall, everything by William Gibson (I think that’s somewhere north of twenty novels…I drive a lot), [edit: nearly] everything by Scott Westerfeld[4], Children of Time by Adrian Tchaikovsky, some Brandon Sanderson stuff (“Alcatraz versus” several novels, but these were not audiobooks except Perfect State), Space Opera by Catherynne M. Valente, I am Princess X, by Cherie Priest, All the Birds in the Sky, by Charlie Jane Anders, Noir, a Novel, by Christopher Moore, Bellwether by Connie Willis[5], Head On by John Scalzi, The Murderbot Diaries by Martha Wells, Brainwave by Poul Anderson, Richard Morgan’s Altered Carbon stuff, The Gospel of Loki, by Joanne M. Harris, The Hero’s Guide to Saving Your Kingdom by Christopher Healy, and others I have completely forgotten[6].

[0] Christ, where do they find these guys?

[1] Well three, but one of them seems pretty much outside of society for reasons which should be very clear at the end of the book [edit: series].

[2] I do feel that an author ought to be able to read the books they write with the delivery they intend in the writing, but I understand that not every writer is a good reader…mores the pity.

[3] featuring the line ’and stop smelling the robot boy’ delivered breathlessly by the narratrix

[4] see also “I drive a lot”, above–also, I found out I haven’t yet read everything of his.  Oh, boy.

[5] featuring the most evil character in all of English-language literature, Flip

[6] Two years is a long time, even for your nearly immortal correspondent.

3D-Printed Flexible Piezoelectric Element January 24, 2019

Posted by stuffilikenet in 3D Printing, Awesome, Science, Video.
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Mechanical engineers develop process to 3D print piezoelectric materials

New methods to 3D print piezoelectric materials that can be custom-designed to convert movement, impact and stress from any directions to electrical energy have been published in Nature Materials.  The materials can also be activated — providing the next generation of intelligent infrastructures and smart materials for tactile sensing, impact and vibration monitoring, energy harvesting, and other applications. Unlike conventional piezoelectrics, where electric charge movements are prescribed by the intrinsic crystals, the new method allows users to prescribe and program voltage responses to be magnified, reversed or suppressed in any direction.

A factor in current piezoelectric fabrication is the natural crystal used. At the atomic level, the orientation of atoms are fixed. The researchers produced a substitute that mimics the crystal but allows the lattice orientation to be altered by design.

“We have synthesized a class of highly sensitive piezoelectric inks that can be sculpted into complex three-dimensional features with ultraviolet light. The inks contain highly concentrated piezoelectric nanocrystals bonded with UV-sensitive gels, which form a solution — a milky mixture like melted crystal — that we print with a high-resolution digital light 3D printer”.

The material has sensitivities 5-fold higher than flexible piezoelectric polymers. The stiffness and shape of the material can be tuned and produced as a thin sheet resembling a strip of gauze, or as a stiff block. “We have a team making them into wearable devices, like rings, insoles, and fitting them into a boxing glove where we will be able to record impact forces and monitor the health of the user,” said the chief investigator Zheng.

The team has printed and demonstrated smart materials wrapped around curved surfaces, worn on hands and fingers to convert motion, and harvest the mechanical energy, but the applications go well beyond wearables and consumer electronics.

“Traditionally, if you wanted to monitor the internal strength of a structure, you would need to have a lot of individual sensors placed all over the structure, each with a number of leads and connectors,” said Huachen Cui, a doctoral student of Zheng’s and the first author of the Nature Materials paper. “Here, the structure itself is the sensor — it can monitor itself.”

Homework: Huachen Cui, Ryan Hensleigh, Desheng Yao, Deepam Maurya, Prashant Kumar, Min Gyu Kang, Shashank Priya, Xiaoyu Zheng. Three-dimensional printing of piezoelectric materials with designed anisotropy and directional responseNature Materials, 2019; DOI: 10.1038/s41563-018-0268-1

AI Detects Rare Syndromes From Images January 9, 2019

Posted by stuffilikenet in Applications, Photography, Science, Star Trek Technology.
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Rare disorders often present with patterned discoloration of the epidermis, distortion of features and other visibly-detectable aberrations in appearance. Marfan’s syndrome presents with long, flexible body type. Noonan syndrome may present wide-set eyes, and Down’s syndrome is well-known to nearly everyone. Now, researchers have developed a facial analysis framework, DeepGestalt, using computer vision and deep learning algorithms, that quantifies similarities to hundreds of genetic syndromes based on unconstrained 2D images. DeepGestalt is currently trained with over 26,000 patient cases from a rapidly growing phenotype-genotype database, consisting of tens of thousands of validated clinical cases, curated through a community-driven platform. DeepGestalt currently achieves 91% top-10-accuracy in identifying over 215 different genetic syndromes and has outperformed clinical experts in three separate experiments.

In results published in Nature Medicine, DeepGestalt  outperformed doctors in diagnosing patients with Angelman syndrome and Cornelia de Lange syndrome versus other disorders, and in separating patients with different genetic subtypes of Noonan syndrome.

It’s a neat study in that it controls for a bunch of conditions including ethnicity and gender, so it’s a bit more robust than previous studies.

 

Homework: [PDF] https://arxiv.org/abs/1801.07637

3D Models Through Multiple Primitives January 7, 2019

Posted by stuffilikenet in 3D Printing, Applications, Toys.
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Sometime the 3D scanner can’t model complex interiors. Geeks to the rescue:
The authors of a nifty paper describe how their software creates solid models based on a kind of successive approximation using a library of primitive shapes.  They claim success in over one hundred complex models (see video, above).

Barbie pagoda fungus (Podoserpula miranda) January 3, 2019

Posted by stuffilikenet in Awesome, Mushrooms, Photography.
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Image shamefully stolen from Reddit.com

My New Neighborhood December 29, 2018

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My neighborhood is gentrified as heck.